The United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on the most advanced, comprehensive and highest environmental chapter of a trade agreement. Like the work chapter, the „Environment“ chapter puts all environmental provisions at the heart of the agreement and makes them applicable. In the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations fail.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries. The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. In addition, there is a provision that the agreement itself must be reviewed every six years by the three nations, with a 16-year forfeiture clause. The contract may be renewed for a period of 16 years during the six-year review period.  The introduction of the Sunset clause gives more control in the organization of the future of the USMCA in the hands of national governments. However, there is concern that this could lead to greater uncertainty. Sectors such as automotive require significant investment in cross-border supply chains.  Given the dominant position of the U.S.
consumer market, it is likely that this will put pressure on companies to establish more production in the United States, with a higher probability of higher production costs for these vehicles.  The „Environment“ chapter contains the most comprehensive environmental commitments applicable to the former U.S. Agreement, including commitments to combat trade in wild plants, wood and fish; Strengthen law enforcement networks to curb human trafficking; and address pressing environmental issues, such as air quality and marine waste. One of President Trump`s main goals in the renegotiation is to ensure that the agreement benefits American workers. The United States, Mexico and Canada have approved a laboratory chapter that brings work obligations to the heart of the agreement, makes them fully applicable and is the strongest provisions of any trade agreement. In an appendix to the agreement, Mexico also pledged to pass far-reaching legislative changes to combat forced labour and violence against workers and to allow independent unions and labour tribunals. The International Trade Commission estimates that if the changes are made, they will increase the wages of unionized workers in Mexico and reduce their wage differences with American workers. For the first time, a trade agreement requires that: on April 3, 2020, Canada informed the United States and Mexico that it had completed its national process of ratifying the agreement.  On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate passed the revised treaty by 107-1 votes.  On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada, although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement.
 The agreement gives U.S. farmers additional access to foreign markets, particularly in Canada.